A Conceptual Model for Readiness to Pursue Government as a Platform

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD student of Information Technology Management - Service Management and Technology Development, Faculty of Management, Department of Information Technology Management, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

2 Department of Economics, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.

3 Department of Science Policy, National Research Institute for Science Policy, Tehran, Iran.

4 Associate Prof. of University of Tehran


Purpose: The electronicization of government has happened in the last fifteen years, and governments have moved from e-government to mobile governments with the advancement of technology. The new generation of governments is the Government as a Platform (GaaP). Since the prediction of emerging technologies is part of futures studies, The Government as a Platform preparedness and implementation model is considered the most infrastructure concept of this technology in this article.

Method: This is a qualitative study which is conducted using the meta-analysis approach to analyze data extracted from different selected sources. In this study, more than 30 sources are selected and used for qualitative analysis and coding.

Results: By categorizing the obtained codes, 65 indexes are formed and classified into seven layers. In this regard, the essential requirements in realizing GaaP are: 1- good governance, 2- government’s paradigm shift from service provider to ecosystem leader, 3- cultivating entrepreneurial and startup communities, 4- digital trust, 5- providing the foundation for growth and development, 6- digital transformation and 7- creating a mindset of change and open innovation in society.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that there is no a specific version for realizing GaaP in the world. However, considering the specific components, such as digital culture, budget and credits, digital privacy, and digital talent, of a country, the government formulates a customized model for realizing its own version of GaaP. The curent model can be used as a guide for policy to entering the future Government as a Platform.


Smiley face

  1. Albanese, L., & Bettoni, G. (2021). An integrative framework to successfully implement the government as a platform model. A multiple case analysis [Doctoral Thesis, The Polytechnic University of Milan]. Milan, Italy. https://hdl.handle.net/10589/179775
  2. Bender, B., & Heine, M. (2021, September 2021). Government as a Platform? Constitutive Elements of Public Service Platforms EGOVIS 2021: Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective, Virtual Event. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86611-2_1
  3. Bender, B., & Heine, M. (2022). Government as a Platform? The Power of Platforms to Support Personalization of Public Services. Journal of Data Intelligence, 3(1), 169-187. https://doi.org/10.26421/JDI3.1-5
  4. Bharosa, N. (2022). The rise of GovTech: Trojan horse or blessing in disguise? A research agenda. Government Information Quarterly, 39(3), 101692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2022.101692
  5. Chung, C.-S. (2017). From electronic government to platform government. Journal of Platform Technology, 5(3), 3-10. https://www.dbpia.co.kr/Journal/articleDetail?nodeId=NODE07246772
  6. D’Silva, F., & Norway, A. (2018). Government as a Platform: a historical and architectural analysis NOKOBIT-Norway conference on the use of ITAT by organizations, Ålesund, Norway. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329987862_Government_As_A_Platform_A_Historical_And_Architectural_Analysis
  7. Geliskhanov Islam, Z., Yudina Tamara, N., & Babkin Alexander, V. (2018). Digital platforms in economics: essence, models, development trends. π-Economy, 74(6), 22-36. https://doi.org/10.18721/JE.11602
  8. Gil‐Garcia, J. R., Henman, P., & Maravilla, M. (2019). Towards “Government as a Platform”? Preliminary Lessons from Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Proceedings of Ongoing Research, Practitioners, Posters, Workshops, and Projects of the International Conference EGOV-CeDEM-ePart 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy. https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/8626904/file/8626906
  9. Jeannot, G. (2020). Life and Death of the Platform State. French journal of public administration(1), 165-179. https://doi.org/10.3917/rfap.173.0165
  10. José van Dijck, Thomas Poell, & Waal., M. d. (2018). The Platform Society: Public Values in a Connective World. Hamshahri.
  11. Kuhn, P., Buchinger, M., Balta, D., & Matthes, F. (2022). Barriers of applying Government as a Platform in Practice: Evidence from Germany The 55th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences,  https://hdl.handle.net/10125/79661
  12. Kuhn, P., Dallner, S., Buchinger, M., & Balta, D. (2022, February 2022). Towards “Government as a Platform”: An analysis framework for public sector infrastructure 17th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, Nürnberg, Germany. https://aisel.aisnet.org/wi2022/e_government/e_government/4
  13. Llanos Guillen, E. G. (2022). Institutional Interoperability and Documentary Attention to the Citizen in the Officials of a Ministerial Institution, 2021 [Master’s Thesis, The César Vallejo University]. Lima, Peru. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12692/77623
  14. Mukhopadhyay, S., Bouwman, H., & Jaiswal, M. P. (2019). An open platform centric approach for scalable government service delivery to the poor: The Aadhaar case. Government Information Quarterly, 36(3), 437-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2019.05.001
  15. O'Reilly, T. (2011). Government as a Platform. Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization, 6(1), 13-40.
  16. Olegovna, I. T. (2022). The Role of the Development of The System of Interdepartmental Electronic Interaction in The Implementation of the Concept "The Government as a Platform". E-Scio(5 (68)), 416-420. https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/rol-razvitiya-sistemy-mezhvedomstvennogo-elektronnogo-vzaimodeystviya-v-realizatsii-kontseptsii-gosudarstvo-kak-platforma/pdf
  17. Peña-López, I. (2020). The OECD Digital Government Policy Framework. Six dimensions of a Digital Government.
  18. Poliarus, V. (2022). Identification of Design Principles for Platform Engineering in the Public Sector [Bachelor’s Thesis, Technical University of Munich]. Munich, Germany. https://wwwmatthes.in.tum.de/file/dns4a156acpy/Sebis-Public-Website/-/Bachelor-s-Thesis-Vasilisa-Poliarus/TUM_Thesis_Poliarus_final.pdf
  19. Pope, R. (2019a). Government as a Platform: Playbook [راهنمای اجرایی دولت به مثابه پلتفرم]. Publications of the Cyber Space Space Research Institute,  Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. [In Persian]
  20. Pope, R. (2019b). Playbook: government as a platform. Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  21. Seo, H. (2021). Government as a Platform Revitalization Strategy Derived from Webtoon Platform Success Factors. Journal of Digital Convergence, 19(10), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.14400/JDC.2021.19.10.001
  22. Seo, H., & Myeong, S. (2020). The priority of factors of building government as a platform with analytic hierarchy process analysis. Sustainability, 12(14), 5615. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145615
  23. Seo, H., & Myeong, S. (2022). Effects of Application of Information on the Expectations of Benefits from GaaP: Moderating Effects from Perceptions of IIT. Sustainability, 14(3), 1624. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031624
  24. Smorgunov, L. (2021). Governability and a technocratic approach to government as a platform: critics using the Russian case. International Journal of Electronic Governance, 13(1), 4-20. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEG.2021.114298
  25. Srnicek, N. (2021). Platform Capitalism. amirkabir.
  26. Styrin, E., Mossberger, K., & Zhulin, A. (2022). Government as a platform: Intergovernmental participation for public services in the Russian Federation. Government Information Quarterly, 39(1), 101627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2021.101627
  27. Trček, D. (2022). E-government 4.0: Managing APIs as facilitators for digital transformation. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 11(1), 1-1. https://doi.org/10.36941/ajis-2022-0001